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The Bibliographic Framework Initiative was started in 2011 in order to define a successor to the aging MARC format. BIBFRAME, as it became known, is now in its second iteration and continues to be expanded and developed by many groups. The Library of Congress has announced that it will officially adopt BIBFRAME as their next encoding standard. Visit the BIBFRAME FAQ webpage to learn more about this emerging model.

BIBFRAME Online Resources

    The website that serves as the repository for all things BIBFRAME. It includes links to the Library of Congress Bibliographic Framework Initiative website, the BIBFRAME Model, and the BIBFRAME implementation and testing site.
  • Library of Congress BIBFRAME Webcasts & Presentations
    BIBFRAME Update sessions recorded from various conference presentations.
  • BIBFRAME Listserv
    A space to provide feedback, respond to proposals, and make your requirements known as the model develops.

IFLA Library Reference Model (LRM)

The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) has developed a model of the bibliographic universe known as the Library Reference Model. The IFLA website describes it like this: 

IFLA LRM is a high-level conceptual reference model developed within an entity-relationship modelling framework. It is the consolidation of the separately developed IFLA conceptual models: FRBR, FRAD, FRSAD.


IFLA LRM was developed to resolve inconsistencies between the three separate models. Every user task, entity, attribute and relationship from the original three models was examined, definitions had to be revised, but also some remodeling was required in order to develop a meaningful consolidation. The result is a single, streamlined, and logically consistent model that covers all aspects of bibliographic data and that at the same time brings the modelling up-to-date with current conceptual modelling practices.


IFLA LRM was designed to be used in linked data environments and to support and promote the use of bibliographic data in linked data environments.

LRM Resources