Cataloging Rules & Changes
RDA (Resource Description and Access)
Cataloging rules are on the verge of changing. The release of Resource Description and Access (RDA) together with the application
of Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) and Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) will
in the way we approach our work.
RDA was developed as a new set of guidelines for describing and providing access to resources covering all types of content and media.
It is intended to replace the second edition of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) as the standard for cataloging.
Minitex is providing training on RDA. Visit the training section of our website to find out what classes are available.
Minitex RDA Resources
Minitex/OCLC Mailing RDA Series
A three-part series of articles describing the origins of RDA, its content, and its application. These articles first appeared in the March,
April, and June 2010 issues of the Minitex/OCLC Mailing and have been revised and updated for publication on the web. The first two articles are
available below at present.
Minitex RDA Discussion List (mtx-rda)
This list, open to anyone in the Minitex region, is dedicated to conversation and announcements concerning
local implementation issues surrounding RDA.
RDA Online Resources
RDA Guidelines and Application
U.S. National Libraries' RDA Test
Testing Resource Description and Access (RDA)
Comprises several documents on the U.S. national libraries' RDA test, including methodology, evaluative factors, and a
listing of formal test participants. The Report and Recommendations of the U.S. RDA Test Coordinating
Committee and executive summary are also available.
RDA Toolkit Website
Access to the RDA Toolkit suite of online cataloging tools, which includes the full texts of RDA and AACR2 and other helpful
aids. The site features other Toolkit information such as subscription pricing, video tutorials, background documents on RDA, and an FAQ.
RDA Toolkit Webinars
Includes recordings of several ALA-sponsored webinars on the RDA Toolkit
RDA, MARC, and OCLC
Institutional RDA Testing and Implementation
Books on RDA
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FRBR, FRAD, FRSAD
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) is a document illustrating a framework for accessing and retrieving records
from bibliographic databases from a user's point of view. Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) describes the authority
side of the library catalog from the same perspective. Subject authority record information and its user context are provided in
Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD). RDA is based on FRBR, FRAD, and with a future revision, FRSAD.
Minitex will provide training on FRBR, FRAD, and FRSAD.
FRBR Online Resources
Books on FRBR
LeBoeuf, Patrick, ed. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic
Records (FRBR): Hype or Cure-All? Binghamton, NY: Haworth Information Press, 2005.
Explores theoretical issues, describes challenges that accompany implementation of FRBR, and suggests ways FRBR could be a tool to
improve library systems.
Maxwell, Robert L. FRBR: A Guide for the Perplexed.
Chicago: American Library Association, 2008.
Defines the entity-relationship model,
FRBR entities, and relationships among entities. Discusses why FRBR is important for the future of information organization and what a catalog
based on FRBR principles might look like.
Taylor, Arlene G., ed. Understanding FRBR: What It Is and How It
Will Affect Our Retrieval Tools. Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited, 2007.
A basic introduction to FRBR. Also includes
discussions about FRAD, RDA, and the issues involved in using FRBR with various formats such as cartographic materials and music.
Articles and Shorter Works on FRBR
Tillett, Barbara. What is FRBR?: A Conceptual Model for the Bibliographic
Universe. [Washington, D.C.]: Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, 2004.
Outlines the background of the development
of the Functional Requirements, the concepts involved, and their potential impact on cataloging rules, bibliographic structures, and systems
design for cataloging applications.
Babeu, Alison. "Building a 'FRBR-Inspired' Catalog:
The Perseus Digital Library Experience." Medford, MA: Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University, 2008.
Describes an experiment to
create a FRBR-ized catalog for an online classics collection.
Bowen, Jennifer. "FRBR: Coming Soon to Your Library?
" Library Resources & Technical Services 49, no. 3, p. 175-188.
Explores the possible effects of FRBR on libraries.
Riley, Jenn. "FRBR."
[United States]: TechEssence.info, 2006.
A succinct presentation of basic FRBR definitions and issues.
Books on FRAD
FRSAD Online Resources
Zeng, Marcia Lei, Maja Žumer, and Athena Salaba, eds. Functional Requirements
for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD): A Conceptual Model. The Hague: International Federation of Library Associations and
Formerly known as Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Records (FRSAR)
FRSAD. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.
Offers a brief introduction to FRSAD based in part on a 2007 article by the editors of the published version of the FRSAD report.
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ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description)
The International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) defines the arrangement of bibliographic information in a record and the
prescribed punctuation employed to separate bibliographic data from one another. This standard was introduced in 1971 for
single-and multi-volume monographs; since then, it has been expanded to accommodate other formats and revised to define a foundation
for cataloging codes internationally. The ISBD has played a significant role in Anglo-American cataloging since the mid-1970s, its general
conventions eventually becoming part of the cataloging text itself under AACR2.
Though its use is optional, the ISBD plays an important role in RDA cataloging. The new cataloging manual only informs the cataloger
what pieces of information to record for a bibliographic record, not how to put these pieces together to form a record. To retain
consistency with AACR2 practices, catalogers will require some familiarity with the ISBD to assemble records when following RDA instructions.
ISBD Online Resources
Bibliographic Description (ISBD).
Consolidated ed. The Hague: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, 2011.
Also available in print loose-leaf format.
International Standard Bibliographic
Description (ISBD) (Draft consolidated edition)
A late draft version in PDF format of the current consolidated edition. The webpage includes links to a clean
version of the draft, a marked-up version, and a listing of revisions made to the text. The
edition was published in mid-2011.
ISBD Area 0 (Draft version)
The new Area 0 is designed to succeed the general material designations that have been a part of the ISBD standard for over three decades.
This new part of the bibliographic record provides a brief description of a resource's content and carrier type—playing a role similar to
that of RDA's content, media, and carrier type terms. Area 0 instructions will be folded into the text of the upcoming ISBD consolidated edition.
Full ISBD Examples
Samples of bibliographic descriptions for various formats. Examples are written in various languages and scripts.
A bibliographic listing of older ISBD documents; some are available in HTML or PDF format.
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Current Cataloging Resources
Catalogers use a variety of guides and services to enable them to work more efficiently. Here are
some examples of resources that could be helpful to you.
Guidelines on cataloging electronic resources, microforms, audiovisual materials, and material for
children. Also, some links to cataloging interest groups.
A web-based subscription service from the Library of Congress that provides access to RDA, AACR2, DACS, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations, subject
cataloging manuals, MARC21 formats, MARC code lists, and many other resources.
Resources for School Librarians
Lists of websites and books on a wide range of resources with some emphasis on Dewey Decimal Classification.
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules
Designed for use in the construction of catalogs and other lists in general libraries of all sizes.
The rules cover the description of, and the provision of access points for, all library materials
commonly collected at the present time.
Library of Congress Authorities
A free service for browsing authority headings by subject, name, title, name/title, and keyword combinations and downloading
authority records in MARC21 format for use in a local library system.
Library of Congress Classification
BIBCO: Monographic Bibliographic Record Program of the PCC
Includes information about training to create BIBCO standard bibliographic records, Library of Congress cataloging practices,
and BIBCO documentation. Provides access to the approved
BIBCO standard record profiles.
Bibliographic Formats and Standards
OCLC's guide to MARC field tags, subfields, and coding, now in its fourth edition. Also includes chapters on online cataloging, special
cataloging guidelines, when to input a new record, and quality assurance.
Cataloger's Reference Shelf
Access to MARC21 data formats, MARC21 code lists, subject cataloging manuals, and other resources.
CONSER: Cooperative Online Serials
A part of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC), CONSER provides an authoritative source for bibliographic serial records,
documentation (such as the CONSER Standard Record), and the Serials Cataloging Cooperative Training Program (SCCTP) training materials.
Library of Congress MARC Standards
Access to the Library of Congress standards for MARC21 formats and codes with updates and change
announcements – including changes made to accommodate RDA.
NACO: Name Authority Cooperative Program of the PCC
Members of the NACO program contribute authority records for names, uniform titles, and series to the Library of Congress
Name Authority File. The site includes training information and cataloging documentation for NACO participants.
Provider-Neutral E-Monograph MARC21 Record Guide
Guidelines for creating or revising records for e-monographs in OCLC's WorldCat database.
SACO: Subject Authority Cooperative Program of the PCC
Program members of SACO provide a means for libraries to submit proposals for subject headings and classification numbers to the
Library of Congress. The site includes training materials (such as the 2007 edition of the SACO Participants' Manual) and links to
the new subject heading and classification number lists, which are updated weekly.
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