Cataloging & Metadata Standards & Best Practices


  • Cataloging Content Standards
    Includes links to Minitex and other RDA resources, as well as information about the ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description) standard, another commonly used content standard in the cataloging community.
  • Cataloging Encoding Standards
    Learn more about the MARC format for bibliographic records, and browse lists of commonly used resources.
  • Subject Headings
    Resources for learning more about and using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH).
  • Classification
    Browse online and print resources for both Library of Congress and Dewey Decimal Classification.
  • Cataloging Models
    Visit this page to learn more about data models such as BIBFRAME, the eventual successor to the MARC format; Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), and Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD).
  • Best Practices & Cataloging Guides
    Catalogers use a variety of guides and services to enable them to work more efficiently.


  • Linked Data
    Find links to introductory resources, linked data communities, datasets, and examples of library catalogs and other applications using linked data.
  • Data Structure Standards
    Data structure standards are sometimes referred to as metadata schemes. A metadata scheme defines the structure and the meaning (semantics) of elements. Find out more information about the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Categories for the Descriptions of Works of Art (CDWA), and the Visual Resources Association Core Categories (VRA).
  • Data Content Standards
    Data content standards provide guidelines for creating metadata. Cataloging Cultural Objects (CCO), Describing Archives: A Content Standard (DACS), Resource Description and Access (RDA) are defined here.
  • Data Value Standards
    Data value standards are established lists of terms used as data elements to ensure consistency. Examples of data value standards include thesauri, controlled vocabularies, and authority files. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT), Library of Congress Thesaurus of Graphic Materials (LCTGM), Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), LC Name Authority File, and more are included on this page.
  • Data Format/Exchange Standards
    Data format or data exchange standards are markup languages that provide a standardized way to structure and express metadata schemes for machine processing. This section includes information about the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS), Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS), MARCXML, and more.


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